Co-founder Bryan Orr talks about applied thermodynamics and how the topic relates to air conditioning companies in Clermont.
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Table of Contents
Links and Items Mentioned In This Video
- How the 1st Law of Thermodynamics applies to air conditioning repair
- How the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics applies to air conditioner repair
- Real-life applications of these laws to air conditioning service and pool heating repair
Now the first big question with thermodynamics is why do we care? Because it’s a big word, it sounds like science, sounds boring. Thermodynamics is really the science of energy in general. So it’s a lot bigger than just the idea of the movement of heat, although when you get into the laws of thermodynamics, you’ll find out that it is energy, but anyway, you’ll see that in our humorous little video that we have to show.
Thermodynamics essentially just means the movement of heat, dynamics of heat, moving heat. So let’s do this real basic first. So first of all, why does heat move? So let’s write that. That’s a really big question and one of the most important questions of thermodynamics. So why does heat move? Well, heats move from a warmer body or a hotter body to a lower temperature or a cooler body.
What is temperature? That’s another question to ask. What’s the relationship between heat and temperature? We’ll talk about that a little bit more, but what direction does the heat travel? Does heat travel from cooler to hotter or does it travel from hotter to cooler? It travels from hotter to cooler and that’s the same thing that we talked about in previous classes – this idea of the equilibrium of energy. Energy is seeking its equilibrium. So you have a hotter body of air, water, metal, whatever it is wants to give up its heat. The heat wants to flow from the hotter to the cooler mass.
So what we’re trying to get to is applied thermodynamics – the idea of how do we control the motion of heat. How do we get heat to move from one place to another? Well, the simple answer is to create a temperature condition in which the temperature is cooler in one place than the area that we wanna remove heat from or vice versa.. If we want to move heat from one place to another, we wanna create a condition where there’s a differential in temperature and that’s how we move heat. So simplistically, that’s what we’re doing.
So if I wanna move heat out of this room, what do I have to do? To create a condition in which the temperature is lower somewhere adjacent to this room. Let’s say that we put up a curtain wall right in the center of this room and somehow, we’re gonna be using magic. I made it 95 here and I made it 55 here, okay. Well if I open up the curtain wall, what would happen is that this air would mix together and it would seek an equilibrium between those two until they were completely stabilized.
Audience: Does water does the same thing?
Yeah. I mean all matter, it doesn’t matter what it is, is going to seek a thermal equilibrium and thermal equilibrium is defined by temperature.
Audience: Does it do that just because it seeks a room temperature, hot water moves to cold?
Well it’s not like it’s seeking a particular temperature. It’s not like it got something in mind that it wants to get to. It’s just trying to seek an equilibrium meaning that it’s trying to balance out.
We’re gonna talk about the first and second laws of thermodynamics, but it’s also what’s called the Zeroth Law of thermodynamics. That’s actually real. It’s called the Zeroth Law of thermodynamics and the Zeroth Law of thermodynamics states that if two bodies are thermally equal meaning that their temperatures are equal, then a third body that temperature is equal to either of two is also equal to the other. The concept here and that’s a really simple obvious thing to say because we’re used to dealing with temperature, but it’s helping us understand what that actually means. Because really what we do is when we say 75 degrees, that’s really just an arbitrary measurement that we apply to a condition that we see, thermal condition that exists.
The scientific concept that we’re trying to apply here is that when we talk about temperature, it’s something that we’re familiar with and the danger when you’re familiar with something is that you apply certain realities to it that may or may not exist. So we’ll say something as 95 degrees so that’s hot to us or it’s 200 degrees, that’s hot to us. Well that “it’s hot” in relation to something that is cooler than it. There is no such thing. We’re kind of getting back to Kyle’s question. There is no definition of what warm, cool, cold, hot really is. The only real definition that exists is absolute zero where it’s the absolute absence of heat. You get to a point where there is no more heat and that’s the only real solid established thing.
There is no ultimate high temperature. It can keep going up. So you say, well compare the hot Sahara Desert to the surface of the sun, well obviously, they’re very different but we would still say the Sahara Desert is hot. So there’s a sort of arbitrary things that we apply to the concepts of hot and cold. But what the thermodynamics Zeroth Law is essentially saying is that when two things are in a state of equilibrium, two things that are adjacent to each other, in contact with each other that are at a state of equilibrium, meaning no heat is transferred then you can say that they’re the same temperature. So if there’s something else that’s also at a state of equilibrium or heat is not moving, you can also say that it’s the same temperature. So let’s say that I didn’t own a thermometer and there’s no way I could, but I could somehow prove that this body of water and no heat was transferring between them, I could say absolutely that these two are the same temperature. So that’s the Zeroth Law of thermodynamics.
But essentially what we’re establishing here is this concept that, when you talk about applied thermodynamics, you’re manipulating conditions in order to create conditions in which you have a differential in temperature between different matters in order to transfer heat from one to another. You have to have differential in temperature.
Now let’s ask a bigger question because this is another area where we all apply something based on our experience but then reality sometimes gets in the way. Let’s say that I have a glass of water. So I have this glass and this glass of water is full of 212 degree water so it’s water that’s at the boiling point and then I have this room that’s 74 degrees. Now, which has more heat in it, this room or this 212 degree cup of water?
Audience: Probably the room because it has more total space.
It has more total molecular mass, much more molecular mass in all of the area that exists in this room than it had the water that’s in this glass. Now, the average molecular energy within this vessel is greater so the temperature is greater within this vessel. So we say, if you average out the molecular energy in here, it’s greater than what’s in here, but there’s still more heat here. So for example, if I immediately instantaneously transfer the heat out of this 212 degree water into this space, how greatly would it affect the temperature of this space?
Normally, although you know that if this were 212 degree water, it would be constantly transferring its heat out of this to the space until this water acclimated to the temperature of the room. We can think wrongly about it. We can say something is hotter. What we mean when we say hotter is we mean it is of a higher temperature, but that does not mean that it has a greater heat content. Does that make sense? We’re talking a lot about these two different things. We have to think of them differently, but we can still affect heat transfer one direction or another, not based on the amount of overall heat in those two spaces, but based on the temperature differential between the two. So that’s what we have to affect. It’s the temperature differential, the average molecular energy in that space. We don’t have to worry about how much overall energy there is in the space.
So now let’s talk a little bit about the laws of thermodynamics and getting a little bit more specific about what they are and how the rules that govern how heat moves and what heat has done. So first of all, I have a little video for you to watch. Hopefully, you’ll enjoy it as much as I did which was immensely. It has puppets in it.
Puppet 1: The first law of thermodynamics: “Heat is work and work is heat.”
Puppet 2: “Heat is work and work is heat.”
Puppet 1: Very good. The second law of thermodynamics: “Heat cannot of itself pass from one body to a hotter body.”
Puppet 2: “Heat cannot of itself pass from one body to a hotter body.”
Puppet 1: ♪ [singing] ♪ Heat won’t pass from a cooler to a hotter.
Puppet 2: ♪ [singing] ♪ Heat won’t pass from cooler to a hotter.
Puppet 1: ♪ [singing] ♪ You could try it if you like but you far better not.
Puppet 2: ♪ [singing] ♪ You could try it if you like but you far better not.
Puppet 1: ♪ [singing] ♪ Thus the cold and the cooler will be hotter as a ruler.
Puppet 2: ♪ [singing] ♪ Thus the cold and the cooler will be hotter as a ruler.
Puppet 1: ♪ [singing] ♪ Because the hotter body’s heat will pass through the cooler.
Puppet 2: ♪ [singing] ♪ Because the hotter body’s heat will pass through the cooler.
Both Puppets: ♪ [singing] ♪ Heat is work and work is heat and work is heat and heat is work.
Puppet 1: ♪ [singing] ♪ Heat will pass by conduction of the heat.
Puppet 2: ♪ [singing] ♪ Heat will pass by conduction of the heat.
Puppet 1: ♪ [singing] ♪ Heat will pass by convection of the heat.
Puppet 2: ♪ [singing] ♪ Heat will pass by convection of the heat.
Puppet 1: ♪ [singing] ♪ Heat will pass by radiation.
Puppet 2: ♪ [singing] ♪ Heat will pass by radiation.
Both Puppets: ♪ [singing] ♪ And that’s a physical law.
Puppet 1: Heat is work and work is of course, all the heat in the universe is gonna cool down because it can’t increase then there’ll be no more work and there’ll be nothingness.
Puppet 2: Really.
Puppet 1: Yeah. That’s entropy man. And all because of the second law of thermodynamics. We placed down ♪ [singing] ♪ that will pass through from the cooler to the hotter
Puppet 2: Too cold.
Both Puppets: Thus the cold and the cooler will be hotter as a ruler because the hotter body’s heat will pass through the cooler. You can try it if you like but you’ll always be the fool because the cold is the cooler will be hotter as a ruler. That’s the physical law.
Puppet 1: Oh I’m hot.
Puppet 2: Hot? That’s because you’ve been working.
Puppet 1: Oh Beatles is nothing.
Both Puppets: That’s the first and second law of thermodynamics.
Come on, that’s pretty good stuff. So first and second laws of thermodynamics. First law of thermodynamics basically says that all the energy that exists in the universe is what it is. There’s a certain amount of energy within the universe and that is measured by heat. We can measure everything by heat. You can measure velocity or any measure of work, horsepower to watts, watts to PTU and it’s all tied back to transfer of heat energy. We can measure it in that way.
And then the second law of thermodynamics is the idea of entropy that you can take heat and you can take energy and it can be transferred from a usable to a more unusable state because everything tends towards equalization and we can use the illustration that once you have some ice in this room and once the room transfers its heat into the ice and the ice melts, well now the energy transfer is done, the energy is still there, but it’s no longer usable. So now we have to do something in order to create a differential, in order to cause energy to move again. So from a philosophical standpoint, the energy is still there. It’s just equalizing how we can’t do anything with it anymore. The second law of thermodynamics covers that idea.
The term entropy is the term that they use for the transfer or the conversion of energy from a usable to an unusable state and more simplistically that people will explain entropy is they’ll say being simpler is order which is not an exactly perfect way to explaining that, but it’s a way that sometimes we can think about it and that we use things up, we take the power plant and create energy and then the energy runs through our circuits and then it becomes this unusable state. It isn’t necessarily in its orderly state, but it is a state in which it’s not doing anything for us anymore. It’s just sort of at rest now because it has achieved its equilibrium.
So most of the energy that we see on Earth comes from the sun. They’re a little bit from the stars and things, but the bulk of the energy that we have on Earth is injected into our system constantly by the sun and so we don’t have a closed system here. If we had a closed system here where we had just the energy that the sun gave us and the sun went out, how long it will last? Not very long and that’s because we constantly have that differential that’s being provided to us by the sun. Once we no longer have that and all we have is our stored resources that the sun has provided us in the past like oil or whatever in order to continue to go on, but as we know that wouldn’t last very long would it.
All right so now let’s talk specifically about ways that we create conditions in which we can move heat from one place to another. Let’s first talk about a change of state or what we call latent heat versus sensible heat. First, let’s define what sensible heat is. Sensible heat is, if I create a change in temperature and I see it change on a thermometer, it’s pretty obvious, sensible heat. Now, are there ways in which you can actually move heat, but you don’t see any change on a thermometer? Let’s say I got a big pot of water here and I put a flame under it, I’ll put a thermometer in and I’ll watch the temperature of that water rises, let’s say start at 75 degrees hot and the temperature of that water is just gonna keep rising and then it’s got to hit a point and it’s gonna stop rising. At what temperature is it gonna be at that point at sea level?
Audience: Boiling point.
Boiling point, 212. It’s gonna hit 212 and then the temperature is gonna stop rising, but what’s happening?
Audience: [Cross talk, inaudible].
It’s doing that anyway because that’s what it’s doing. It’s absorbing and it’s trying to create equilibrium with the flame but that’s increasing the temperature of the water continuously. But it hits 212 and then it stops increasing in temperature. Why is that? Well, its because within a molecule, you have all these different atoms that bond together in order to create these stable forms that we see. We see water, we see what we commonly would call air within these stable forms. Water isn’t just one thing. Water is H20 so we have hydrogen and we have oxygen in water in order to make it so. It’s not just pure oxygen. It’s not just pure hydrogen. It bonds together and creates this molecular form that we know as water. What happens is all these water molecules are all bound together in this form that we call liquid. Well, once it gets to a certain temperature, those bonds start to break down because it’s reached a point of molecular excitement meaning that these molecules are starting to move as you increase. In fact, when we talk about temperature, really what we’re talking about is molecular velocity. We’re talking about how fast are these molecules moving? What is the average molecular velocity within this container? So as the temperature of that pot of water is increasing, those little molecules are bouncing pass through and pass through and pass through against each other. Well eventually, you hit a point where they stop bouncing faster and they start breaking apart from each other. They start breaking the bonds that they normally had that what we would call liquid. All these thousands and millions of molecules together, we perceive that in a way and we say that’s liquid because of the way that it looks and the way they bind together. Well, eventually that breaks and they start to create steam. Well they don’t get hotter again until if you were able to recapture that steam and keep heating it, then it could be hotter, but as long as it’s in that change of state/form, as long as it’s actually in the process of boiling, it can’t be hotter than 212 at atmospheric pressure.
Actuality, there’s a lot more heat transferred to take that water and take it and make it 212 degree water to 212 degree steam than there was to take that water and take it from 75 degree water to 212 degree water. And that’s really the magic in air conditioning. That’s the magic that we do with an air conditioning refrigeration is the fact that what we’re used to seeing in everyday life is the heat that goes into raising and dropping the temperature of things, but there’s still much more heat transferred and the changing of things from one state to another state. And really, everything can be changed from one state to another. You can take air and you can create liquid air. You can take nitrogen, you can create liquid nitrogen, but it just requires conditions that we don’t normally see in our environment. We think of water as being liquid, but in reality, water can exist in all three states. Water can exist in ice or just a solid state. It can exist in liquid. It can even exist in vapor which is what we would call steam, but all of those transformations involved a lot more heat being moved than the actual temperature change because you can get ice at 32 and then you can continue to cool ice once it’s fully solid, but if it’s in the change of state, it takes a lot more energy to take 32 degree water and change it to 32 degree ice than it does to take 32 degree ice and change it to 20 degree ice. Does that make sense? You guys with me here?
So in the compression refrigeration circle, I don’t know how well you guys can see this, but the way they do it is they kind of take this little blog here and you kind of watch it travel through the circuit and it sort of showed you what happens here. It’s compressed to a high-pressure gas, it goes to the condenser because now, it’s a very high pressure, high temperature gas and that heat is now transferred out of the condenser into the air around it, it cools down into a liquid, it heats an expansion valve which is basically just a metering device that instantaneously drops the pressure, causes it to expand into a mixture between liquid and vapor and it starts to now absorb heat out of the air around, it goes back in.
What we’re working with here is we’re working with two principles. We’re working with the principle of changing, altering the temperature of something in order to create a situation where heat wants to move and we’re using the secret sauce of latent heat transfer in order to actually change something from one state to another state which is even more powerful when it comes to getting heat to move. So you have the temperature differential. That’s what we learned. You can’t move heat from a lower temperature body to a hotter temperature body. You can’t do it. You can’t move heat from there to there. You have to move heat from a hotter body to the cooler body. So we have to create a temperature differential in order to move the heat the way we want. When you’re cooling a room, say we wanna drop the temperature in this one, we wanna cool this room so what do we have to do in order to get heat out of this room?
Audience: We have to create something colder.
We have to create something colder in order to transfer heat out of the room into the colder body. Now, let’s just say I had another room that was a little bit cooler than this room and I connect them together with a duct. Would that create an equilibrium? Yeah, it would, but it still wouldn’t be very much. If I took another room that was the same size that was a couple of degrees cooler, I can transfer some heat out of this room, but it would just create an equilibrium between the two. It wouldn’t be significant.
Audience: And you have to keep on having room or have a change in temp.
And what we needed to be able to do is create a system in which we can create a high temperature where we want a high temperature and a low temperature, where we want a low temperature and continuously move that heat where we want it to move.
Audience: So when it’s in the high…
Let’s say that you have a condenser that sits outside where it’s running in cool mode and you see that hot air, you put your hand around the air condenser, you see hot air coming out of that condenser. Well, you can think of it in two different ways. You can think that well I’m cooling off the condenser, but a better way of thinking of it is, I’m actually heating up the outside air because the refrigerant gas that’s inside that condenser coil is hotter than the air outside of it. So the heat is going out of that condenser coil into the air around it. So we’re transferring that heat out. Now it’s going back around so it’s cooling off. It’s becoming a more stable state. It kind of settles itself down to a liquid. That’s kind of a way that I like to think of it when we’re talking about a change of state. Think of it like, okay let’s say that this room is full of ping pong balls. Think of the ping pong balls are the molecules and they’re all kind of bouncing slowly. You just got a vision that it all just start bouncing around the room. Now, what happens if I take this wall and I start to move it this way? What starts to happen?
They just start bouncing more and more and more and more and I brought it all the way to here so there’s just this tiny little bit of space, just same as being on that. They’ll just be bouncing all over the place. Well if you think of temperature as the average molecular velocity, meaning the average speed of ping pong balls, well when this is all the way to wall here sort of travels, the average speed of ping pong balls is extremely high therefore the temperature is high. And so now we allow those ping pong balls that are going really fast, now they’re heading into the condenser, they have this really high thermal energy and now we start to allow the heat to go out of those ping pong balls into the space around and that would start to do because now, they’re settling down and they start to calm down again and they actually calm down into a liquid state. Then they hit this expansion valve here and now we’re restricting them. We’re only allowing a few ping pong balls to go through at a time and now, they immediately break their bonds again because we’ve released that from that pressure that had been held that are still holding them together. Because essentially, what we’re saying is we have two things that are happening at once in this circuit, you have the fact that we’re continuously depressing and depressurizing and we have the fact of the actual temperature of the objects.
So lets’ think of it this way. I asked the boys this question the other day. Let’s say that you’re boiling water and you were trying to cook potatoes up in the mountains. Does the water boil up in the mountains at a higher temperature or does it boil at a lower temperature?
Audience: It boils at a lower temperature.
Any why is that?
Audience: Lower atmospheric pressure.
So in the terms that I’ve been describing.
Audience: There’s lower mass per heated volume meaning there’s lower thermal energy per heated volume.
Sure. And if you think of it in a more simplistic kind of highway which is how I like to do it, if you have less force holding something together because atmospheric pressure is pressing in on all of us all the time, it’s kind of holding us together and even if the water is pushing it together, meaning it’s kind of forcing it into an artificial liquid state if you will, now if you start to release those bonds, now those molecules start to be allowed to move away from each other even with just the atmospheric pressure. Therefore it takes less heat, less temperature in order for them to break their bonds because they have less pressure than to begin with in the mountains. Now all this pressure cooker on it and you take that pressure cooker and as that water starts to boil, it’s actually creating a pressure within that vessel. Now, does the water boil at a hotter temperature or a colder temperature?
Audience: Much hotter.
Much hotter temperature, why? Because you have this pressure that’s now forcing it together. As it boils, it’s creating warmer pressure and it’s forcing those bonds together and so it allows it to get hotter and hotter and hotter as the pressure increases because that pressure is keeping it from expanding into a vapor. Do you follow what I’m saying? So as the vapor fills up that space and creates more pressure, it’s forcing it together and it’s kind of compounding effect.
Audience: So from pressure, it’s concentrating the heat.
It’s concentrating the heat is a very good way of looking at it. Now does the compressor…
Audience: Go ahead.
No, no, it’s a good question. Let me go ahead and put this up here.
Audience: If you can make whatever you’re doing hotter [inaudible].
Okay sure. Well let’s talk about this. Let me draw a terrible picture of a compressor again like I did last time. This is our discharge line so this is the line coming out. This is our suction line. This is the line coming in. Now, those of you guys who know air conditioning, which one is smaller?
The discharge line is smaller and then this one here is larger. So by its very nature, we’re trying to keep it compact on a high pressure side and we’re trying to give it more volume on a low pressure side. Immediately, you have this kind of force to it. So what’s actually occurring inside of this compressor? What is actually happening because there’s no magic? Basically down here, we’ve got a rotor that spins around and it runs the shaft and the shaft, we’ll just draw this as a scroll compressor. In a scroll compressor, all that it’s doing is it’s creating an oscillating motion in order to create smaller and smaller compression chambers so you got these two plates that fit together and they kind of just do this. It actually is drawing in the refrigerant and creating these smaller and smaller chambers and so that the compressor is in and then it ejects it out to the center of the scroll. Essentially, it’s just larger volume to lower volume.
Now how does that heat in that process? Well, there is some heat added because this is a motor and motors generate heat just through their operation. So there is heat added when the suction gas comes down and it is warmed up by the actual compressor windings and by the body of the compressor. You’re on a compressor. It’s hot even if it’s not hooked in. If you ever seen a compressor that’s not hooked in, if you’re to touch it, it’s still hot because it’s still a motor. But what’s really getting hot, what’s really causing the bulk of the heat in a compressor is not that you’re actually adding heat to it at all. It’s how you did in this room. You’re taking this refrigerant that’s very loosely bounded in the vapor and you’re taking it and you’re slamming it together all at once. Now you would say, okay, if I take all this vapor and I slam it together all at once, why doesn’t it become liquid. This is a thing that I kind of had in my head for a long time when I was in AC school. Why doesn’t it just become a liquid when you slam it together all at once? Because it’s directly proportional meaning that the more that you slam it together, the hotter it gets, but it also has greater bonds against it, but the hotter it gets and has greater bonds, but the hotter it gets so it can’t become a liquid until you actually allows some of that heat to transfer out of it and then it can settle down into a liquid.
So the heat content and the refrigerant hasn’t changed at all when you compress it – key point here. The key content of the refrigerant has not changed at all when you compress it. So then it’s compressed, it is the exact same heat content that it has before it was compressed, but what’s different?
Audience: The temp.
The temperature is different. The average molecular velocity is different and that’s what we’ve just done. We just pulled the trick of taking something that it has the same amount of heat in it that it had before, we’re now creating a giant temperature differential. And so that’s how we do this trick of making something hot so that it become cold, but that’s perception because we haven’t actually changed the amount of heat in it all. We just created a hotter body so that we can now cool it. We’ve taken this heat that we’ve absorbed through the evaporator coil out of the house and now because it’s in this loose state that we’ve allowed it to kind of exist where it’s boiling off and it’s losing its bounds and its’ absorbing heat, and now we get in that compressor and we go way more and now all of the sudden, the temperature shoots way up. Now you can get that heat back out of it. Does that make sense? All that heat rejection in an air conditioning system happens in the condenser coil from what we would consider to be already hot because we go outside and say it’s hot. It’s 95 degrees outside. How could you reject heat at this temperature while that’s the trick of compression refrigeration and later heat transfer because not only are we transferring from hot or colder but were changing state in meantime which allows us to compact a bunch of heat into a couple pounds of refrigerant. See that’s what’s amazing. In an air-conditioning system, we’re taking an air con to the 15 pounds of refrigerant in a regular residential system and we’re cooling an entire house with that. We’re rejecting all of the heat that comes from the house through this medium of a couple of pounds, but the secret sausage that we’re constantly changing state of it and that’s were all that heat is really transferred in that latent phase where you’re not actually in the scene at the moment of change. We’re not talking about sub cool and super heat in this class or saturation or any of that sort of things. You guys are technicians. As you’re doing that, that’s what you’re seeing. That’s what you’re watching occur when you see this saturated state. You’re seeing heat transferred in latent, heat transferred when a settling medium, in this case, the refrigerant is actually changing state from one form to another form. The constant transition of it breaking its bond in evaporation or boiling as we call it and then condensing which is it settling back down into that more compact state again. Does that make sense? Jason, does that answer your question a little bit?
Audience: It does.
So another quick reiteration, if you don’t take away anything else, those of you who actually fix air conditioners, if you don’t take away anything else other than understanding that a compressor doesn’t actually heat anything other than just the fact that there is some heat that goes into the chemical process, but that it is compressing and exposing temperature that helps you understand a lot of things and if you start to think about it in terms of, okay, why do I have high-head pressure? Thinking of all this that you’re thinking, it starts to make a little bit more sense of that and then the perception, you know, I’ve had customers ask questions like how does this even work? I mean, you know, in the way heat comes forward in heat mode, people will ask about it, how are you getting heat out of it? It’s 25 degrees outside. How are you even getting heat out of that air? There’s no heat in that air. It’s cold outside. Well, there’s a lot of heat in that air. There’s actually very little difference between the overall heat content in 25 degree air and 75 degree air, 80 degree air, 90 degree air, because as you know, when heat gets the minus 460 or whatever it is before the heat is really all used up and you monitor, you’re approaching absolute zero before the heat content is zero. So while there is less heat content, there is still plenty of heat in that air outside even when it’s 25 degrees. By using some manipulation process, that’s how we can force the heat to move where we want it to move. So that’s thermodynamics – the movement of heat. Any questions about any of that?
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